Distillation successful because fluids are handled easily and energy can be used efficiently

Cutaway section of tray column shows highly-developed column internals that help make distillation successful.

Cutaway section of a tray column

a) Downcomer;
b) Tray support;
c) Sieve trays;
d) Manway;
e) Outlet weir;
f) Inlet weir;
g) Side wall of downcomer;
h) Liquid seal [1]

Distillation successful because fluids are handled easily

…only fluid phases, which can be handled very easily, are involved.

A further advantage is a high density difference between the coexisting phases. High density differences enable high velocities in the equipment and make the separation of the phases easier.

Distillation successful because energy can be used efficiently

Disadvantages of distillation and rectification are a risk of thermal degradation of substances and, even more importantly, a high energy demand.

This high energy demand, however, can be drastically reduced by special measures, e.g., by material and thermal coupling of the equipment, by implementing heat pumps or by complete heat integration of the process.[2] …this energy frequently can be in the form of exhaust steam from turbine drives or other waste heat that has a relatively low value. In fact, reboilers may provide a utility service by using heat that otherwise might be wasted.[3] …the theoretical work can be closely approached by actual work after known inefficiencies are identified and… the dominant driving force losses are in pressure drop and temperature difference.[4]

Process data and column internals are highly developed

Rectification [distillation] is a highly developed technology with respect to thermodynamic fundamentals (e.g., vapor–liquid equilibrium, thermodynamics) as well as design and construction of the equipment. Rectification columns can be safely constructed and operated up to diameters of 10 m and heights of 100 m.

Column internals (e.g., trays, packings) are very effective in enhancing the interfacial mass transfer

All these advantages often make rectification the separation technology of choice. Whenever a fluid mixture can be fractionated [separated into components] by rectification then rectification is in most cases the winner of a comparison of several separation techniques…[2]

  1. Stichlmair, Johann. “Distillation and rectification.” Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, 2005, p. 74.
  2. Mersmann, Alfons, Matthias Kind, and Johann Stichlmair. Thermal separation technology: principles, methods, process design. Springer Science & Business Media, 2011, p. 231.
  3. Kunesh, J. G., et al. “Distillation-Still Towering over Other Options.” Chemical Engineering Progress 91.10 (1995): 43-54.
  4. Steinmeyer, Dan. “Process Energy Conservation.” Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 5th ed., Wiley-Interscience, 2004-2007, p. 6.

Distillation is the benchmark separation for reliability and efficiency

Distillation process flow diagram for a binary mixture of benzene and toluene

Distillation of a binary mixture of benzene and toluene [1]

Distillation is the dominant separation worldwide

…the unit operation rectification [distillation]… is the only technology which is capable to separate fluid mixtures into all pure substances.[2]

For more than 5,000 years distillation has been used as a method for separating binary and multicomponent liquid mixtures into pure components. Even today, it belongs to the most commonly applied separation technologies and is used at such a large scale worldwide that it is responsible for up to 50% of both capital and operating costs in industrial processes. It moreover absorbs about 50% of the total process energy used by the chemical and petroleum refining industries every year. Given that the chemical industry consumed 19% of the entire energy in Europe (2009), distillation is the big driver of overall energy consumption.[3]

Distillation scales up efficiently and reliably

The capital investment for distillation scales as a function of capacity to about the 0.6 power. Some other methods such as membranes tend to scale linearly with capacity. Thus, distillation often has a distinct economic advantage at large throughputs.[4]

…distillation is the benchmark separation method to which all other methods must be compared. Distillation should always be the first method considered for any separation. Moreover, when other methods give comparable results to distillation, the reliability and efficiency of distillation make it the likely choice.[5]

Of all factors influencing the decision to choose one process in preference to another, design reliability is the most important. Regardless of any other considerations, the plant, when constructed, must work properly to produce an acceptable product that can be sold at a profit.

Reliable design methods for distillation have been developed over many years of industrial experience and extensive testing of commercial-scale equipment by Fractionation Research, Inc. A competent engineering firm usually can design a distillation process given a knowledge of the pertinent physical properties of the components and vapor-liquid equilibrium information on the significant binary-pair components of the mixture to be separated. Occasionally, some small-scale testing is required, but scale-up methods for distillation are the most reliable of all the separation methods.[6]

  1. Seader, J. D., Ernest J. Henley, and D. Keith Roper. Separation process principles: chemical and biochemical operations. 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2011, p. 259.
  2. Mersmann, Alfons, Matthias Kind, and Johann Stichlmair. Thermal separation technology: principles, methods, process design. Springer Science & Business Media, 2011, p. 231.
  3. Górak, Andrzej. “Preface to the Distillation Collection.” Distillation: fundamentals and principles. Edited by Andrzej Górak and Eva Sorensen, Academic Press, 2014. pp. vii-viii.
  4. Kunesh, J. G., et al. “Distillation-Still Towering over Other Options.” Chemical Engineering Progress 91.10 (1995): 43-54.
  5. Barnicki, Scott D., and James R. Fair. “Separation system synthesis: a knowledge-based approach. 1. Liquid mixture separations.” Industrial & engineering chemistry research 29.3 (1990): 421-432.
  6. Null, H. R. “Selection of a separation process.” Handbook of separation process technology. Edited by Ronald W. Rousseau, John Wiley & Sons, 1987, pp. 982-995; p. 984.

Learn fast by pursuing skills, challenges, and rapid feedback

Four girls learn fast on computer together.

Learn fast by building skills

…determining what a student should be able to do is far more effective than determining what that student should know. It then turns out that the knowing part comes along for the ride.

The objectives should be skills, not knowledge. …understand as much as possible about the mental representations that experts use, and teach the skill so as to help students develop similar mental representations.

…you don’t build mental representations by thinking about something; you build them by trying to do something, failing, revising, and trying again, over and over.

Learn fast by taking on challenges

This will involve teaching the skill step by step, with each step designed to keep students out of their comfort zone but not so far out that they cannot master that step.

To help… physics students… develop… mental representations, Wieman and his coworkers developed sets of clicker questions and learning tasks…

The clicker questions and tasks were chosen to trigger discussions that would lead the students to grapple with and apply the concepts they were learning and, ultimately, to those concepts to answer the questions and solve the tasks.

The questions and tasks were also designed to push the students outside their comfort zones—to ask them questions whose answers they’d have to struggle for—but not so far outside their comfort zones that they wouldn’t know how to start answering them.

Wieman and his colleagues pretested the clicker questions and learning tasks on a couple of student volunteers who were enrolled in the course. They gave these students the questions and the learning and then had them think aloud as they reasoned their way toward the answers.

Based on what the researchers heard during the think-aloud sessions. they modified the questions and tasks, with a specific emphasis on avoiding misunderstandings and questions that were too difficult for the students to deal with. Then they went through a second round of testing with another volunteer, sharpening the questions and learning tasks even more.

Learn fast by pursuing rapid feedback

…the classes were structured so that the students would have the opportunity to deal with the various concepts over and over again, getting feedback that identified their mistakes and showed how to correct them. Some of the feedback came from fellow students in the discussion groups and some from the instructors, but the important thing was that the students were getting immediate responses that told them when they were doing something wrong and how to fix it.

…the regular cycle of try, fail, get feedback, try again, and so on is how the students… build their mental representations.[2]

  1. “Clickers in the science classroom (and you don’t even need the clickers).” blog.scientix.eu, 22 Jan. 2015, blog.scientix.eu/2015/01/22/clickers-in-the-science-classroom-and-you-dont-even-need-the-clickers/. Accessed 21 Dec. 2016.
  2. Ericsson, Anders, and Robert Pool. Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2016, pp. 250-253. See also:
    Deslauriers, Louis, Ellen Schelew, and Carl Wieman. “Improved learning in a large-enrollment physics class.” Science 332.6031 (2011): 862-864.

Tax cuts work, stimulus fails, debtor stimulus fails big

GDP output responses to hypothetical 1% impulse personal income tax cuts based on post-WWII data.

Tax cuts provide GDP increases that are
rapid, large, and long-lived

  • Hypothetical response if average personal income tax rate was cut 1% and then immediately raised back up.
  • Based on quarterly post-WWII US data.
  • Two alternative factoring-out sequences were used to remove the effects in the data from simultaneous corporate tax cuts.
  • Dashed lines are 95% confidence intervals.[1]

Capital gains tax cuts increase output quite a lot,
personal income tax cuts increase output just a little,
sales tax cuts reduce output

We find that the average values of the capital, labor, and consumption tax multipliers are 2.74, 1.39, and 0.62, respectively. That is, a one dollar decline in tax revenue from a cut in the tax rate on capital income stimulates output by approximately two dollars and seventy four cents on average.

The capital tax multiplier ranges from a low of 2.54 to a maximum value of 3.08. The range for the labor tax multiplier is 1.27 to 1.56. The consumption tax multiplier varies least… 60 to 0.65.[2]

Government stimulus spending reduces output

…the estimated multiplier for temporary defense spending is 0.4–0.5 contemporaneously and 0.6–0.7 over 2 years. If the change in defense spending is “permanent”… the multipliers are higher by 0.1–0.2.

These multipliers are all significantly less than 1… [3]

Debtor-government stimulus spending kills output

When debt levels are high, increases in government expenditures may act as a signal that fiscal tightening will be required in the near future. Moreover, as recent events in southern Europe and Ireland illustrate, these adjustments may need to be sudden and large. The anticipation of such adjustment could have a contractionary effect that would tend to offset whatever short-term expansionary impact government consumption may have.

Under these conditions, fiscal stimulus may therefore be counter-productive.

…we built a sample of country-episodes where the ratio of the total debt of the central government exceeded 60% of GDP. Our estimate for the impact multiplier is close to zero, and we estimate a long run multiplier of -3.[4]

  1. Mertens, Karel, and Morten O. Ravn. “The dynamic effects of personal and corporate income tax changes in the United States.” The American Economic Review 103.4 (2013): 1212-1247.
  2. Sims, Eric, and Jonathan Wolff. “The State-Dependent Effects of Tax Shocks.” (2016).
  3. Barro, Robert J., and Charles J. Redlick. “Macroeconomic Effects From Government Purchases and Taxes.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 126.1 (2011): 51-102.
  4. Ilzetzki, Ethan, Enrique G. Mendoza, and Carlos A. Végh. “How big (small?) are fiscal multipliers?” Journal of Monetary Economics 60.2 (2013): 239-254.

Preexisting conditions need to become business opportunities

Preexisting conditions consultation

Preexisting conditions can be insured and treated better by making changes that give people good incentives. Here are ten such changes:

Change Explanation
Create a national market for health insurance. More competition, especially among the special needs insurers, would be a huge benefit for the chronically ill. Being able to buy insurance across state lines would encourage that competition.
Encourage portable insurance. Most of the time, the problem of preexisting conditions arises precisely because health insurance isn’t portable.
Allow access to mandate-free insurance. …mandates raise premiums… and divert dollars away…
Give individual buyers the same tax break employees get. All insurance should get the same tax relief regardless of where it is obtained, and individuals should get the same tax relief, regardless of how they obtain it.
Encourage post-retirement health insurance. …give post-retirement health insurance the same tax encouragement as active-worker insurance and allow pre-retirement insurance to be portable.
Allow special needs health insurance. …allow plans to specialize in treating one or more chronic conditions. Plans could specialize, for example, in diabetic care, heart care, or cancer care, and they would be able to charge a market price (say, to employers, other insurers, and even risk pools)…
Allow providers to repackage and reprice their services under Medicare and Medicaid. …to create innovative solutions to the care of diabetes, asthma, cancer, heart disease, and other chronic health issues… …providers should be able to offer a different bundle of services and be paid in a different way so long as they reduce the government’s overall cost and provide a higher quality of care.
Allow health status insurance. …health status insurance would pay future premium increases people face if they have a change in health status and then try to switch to another health plan. You can think of this as a way of insuring against the emergence of preexisting conditions.
Allow self-insurance for changes in health status. …people need the ability to engage in contingency savings—a Health Savings Account for future, rather than current, medical costs.
Allow special Health Savings Accounts for the chronically ill. Cash and Counseling pilot programs in Medicaid are under way in more than half the states. Homebound, disabled patients manage their own budgets and hire and fire those who provide them with services. Satisfaction rates are in the mid-90 percentile (virtually unheard of in any health plan anywhere in the world).

[2, pp. 249-251.]

…markets enjoy their greatest advantage in complex settings that call for imaginative solutions that no government-driven system can deliver.[2, p. 610.]

…you have got to let business make money out of the process…[3]

  1. “China Health Insurance For Pre-Existing Conditions.” China-Health-Insurance.com. www.china-health-insurance.com/china-information/coverage/pre-existing-conditions/. Accessed 23 Jan. 2017.
  2. Goodman, John C. Priceless: Curing the Healthcare Crisis. Scribd ed., Independent Institute, 2012, pp. 249-251, 610.
  3. Higgs, Robert. Depression, war, and cold war: Studies in political economy. Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 30.

Ideal health insurance would be developed by people in business, not government

Ideal health insurance would pay the full cost where this reduces risk, and would pay less for less-proven options.Figure 11.2

Ideal health insurance

Imagine you could… create an insurance plan just for 1,000 people.

Terms of entry

Each person should pay a premium equal to the expected healthcare costs he or she adds to the 1,000‑person pool. …or others must make a charitable contribution on their behalf.

Terms of renewal

…a reasonable rule is to raise or lower everyone’s premium at renewal time, based on whether the whole group’s costs have been more or less than expected.

Third-party insurance vs. self-insurance

…we should encourage individuals to purchase directly most diagnostic tests, most forms of preventive medicine and most primary care.  It may make… sense for the pool to pay for vaccinations, …or to require that members obtain them…

Suppose… a member is diagnosed with cancer. …bad decisions early on could generate larger subsequent costs for the group. Such considerations may create a presumption in favor of paying for all treatment costs from the pool in cases where the entire treatment regime promises to be expensive.

Table 11.1. General Rules

Individual Choice Collective Choice
1. No risky medical event. 1. Risky medical event.
2. Price of third-party insurance is high. 2. Price of third-party insurance is low.
3. Exercise of choice creates no externalities [risks for others]. 3. Exercise of choice creates risks for others.

Implications for HSA design

The design pictured on the right side of Figure 11.2 [above] is preferable. Under this design, the plan pays first dollar for some treatments, while leaving the insured free to pay even higher amounts for other services.

Design of third-party payment

…why not fix the plan’s cost for an entire treatment regimen? If patients selected doctors who charge more, they paid the difference out of pocket.

Terms of exit

After an automobile accident, a claims adjuster inspects the damage, agrees on a price, and writes the car owner a check.

…members would commit to the pool for a period of, say, three, four, or five years. …leaving the pool would require the consent of the pool.

…if a healthy member left… plan A to join… plan B, B would compensate A… …if a sick member left A to join B, A would compensate B…

Ideal health insurance would allow insurers to specialize in the business of insurance

Ideal health insurance would allow… market developments by providing a mechanism for people to leave one insurance pool and join another (without extra cost) when their health condition changes.

Ideal health insurance would be improved by the free flow of information 

Under ideal health insurance… the insurer and the insured are on the same team, with a similar interest and objective: acquiring good value in a competitive market.[1]

  1. Goodman, John C. Priceless: Curing the Healthcare Crisis. Independent Institute, 2012. Chapter 11.

World War II victory was won through resistance and strength

GDPs ($b 1990) and GDP ratios of the great powersGDPs and GDP ratios of the major powers show that in the end, World War II victory was won throm superior economic strength.

World War II victory was won in two periods

This book deals with… …the contribution of economics to victory and defeat of the great powers in World War II.

… a broad understanding of ‘economies’… comprises the national requirements of the war, the quantity and quality of resources, their availability and mobilization, and the institutions and policies which mobilized them for wartime purposes.

… resources… include not only physical resources such as minerals, materials, and fixed capital assets, and financial stocks and flows, but also the human resources represented by the working population, its health and literacy, its degree of skill, training, and education, as well as assets represented by scientific knowledge and technological know-how.

…it has always made sense to distinguish two periods of the conflict.

World War II victory initially came from unexpected resistance

In the first period… strategy and fighting power enabled Germany and Japan to inflict overwhelming defeats…

The factors of strategic deception and surprise, speed of movement, skill in the concentration of forces and selection of objectives, martial tradition, and esprit de corps were all on their side. It was the very high quality of their military assets, the fighting power of their armies and navies, which, in the first years of the war, was almost decisive.

…the Axis leaders saw the warlike qualities of their military assets as providing a military substitute for productive powers, a means of neutralizing the quantitative advantages of the enemy, and an expansionist solution to their countries’ position of economic weakness.

The quick victory which Germany and Japan sought was frustrated by two factors:

  1. …the unanticipated will to resist…
  2. …the unexpected military capacity of the Allied powers to delay defeat and win time…

World War II victory later came from economic superiority

In the second period of the war… opposing forces ground each other down…

It was the quality, not the quantity, of German and Japanese military resources which postponed their defeat for so long, forcing their wealthier adversaries to accumulate a vast quantitative advantage in personnel and weapons before the defeat of the Axis could be assured.

The greater Allied capacity for taking risks, absorbing the cost of mistakes, replacing losses, and accumulating overwhelming quantitative superiority… determined the outcome.[1]

  1. Harrison, Mark. “The economics of World War II: an overview.” The economics of world war II: Six great powers in international comparison, edited by Mark Harrison, Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 1-42.

Political parties need designs that are structures like the Constitution

Current political parties don't follow the Constitution. Conservative Review Liberty Score for Paul Ryan is F - 52%.      Current political parties don't folllow the Constitution. Conservative Review Liberty Score for Mitch McConnell is F - 40%.

Political parties weren’t designed by the founders, and don’t have structures like the Constitution

In those days, political “parties” were considered evil. Just as the term democracy had the same valence that the term demagogue has today, the term party had the valence of partisan.[2, p. 87.]

Both political parties started as coalitions – Democrats defending slavery, Republicans opposing slavery 

Above all, the new Democratic Party was founded on the idea of states’ rights in defense of slavery.[2, p. 89.]

After the Kansas-Nebraska Act passed Congress over bitter opposition, “popular sovereignty” led to gruesome violence that engulfed the Kansas Territory, as warring factions vied to control the content of its new constitution.

…the Whig party collapsed. In its place rose a new party committed to a different conception of the Constitution than that of the Democrats.

Though the Republican platform conceded the constitutional power of states to preserve slavery (“slavery local”), it advocated a national antislavery program in which slavery would be abolished in the District of Columbia, in the territories, and in federal enclaves (“freedom national”). So threatening was this program to the Slave Power that the southern states seceded even before the Republicans could take power to implement it.[2, p. 98.]

Both political parties have long failed to follow the Constitution

…the rise of progressivism in both political parties led to… the concepts of “judicial restraint” and “deference” to the majoritarian branches, along with the concept of “a living constitution.”[2, p. 81.]

“In state after state, progressives… urged adoption of the secret ballot, direct primaries, the initiative, the referendum, and direct election of senators.“[2, p. 124.]

All of these tropes were devised to evade the constraints on their progressive legislative agenda imposed by our Republican Constitution.[2, p. 81.]

…the more important the issue, the more likely it will engender a political war of all against all to avoid having another’s social policy imposed on you. So, the more important the issue, the less it is fit to be decided at the national level.[2, pp. 183-184.]

“In state after state, progressives… urged… regulating railroads and utilities, restricting lobbying, limiting monopoly, and raising corporate taxes. …workers’ compensation, child labor laws, minimum wage and maximum hours legislation (especially for women workers), and widows’ pensions.“[2, p. 124.]

The Constitution can’t limit the national government until a major party has a structure like the Constitution, and follows the Constitution

… a system of voting does not allow the sovereign people to “rule,” and it is a pernicious myth to claim that they do. For a variety of reasons, ours is generally a two-party system. The best voters can do is discipline the “in“ duopoly party by shifting their electoral support to the “out” duopoly party and hope for some marginal improvement.[2, p. 177.]

Our Republican Constitution will not be restored in our two-party system until one of the two major political parties embraces it as a central plank of its political platform.[2, p. 252.]

Then the electorate will be faced with a true choice, rather than an echo of the Democratic Party.[2, p. 253.]

  1. “Representative Paul D. Ryan.” ConservativeReview.com, 10 Dec. 2016, www.conservativereview.com/members/paul-ryan/liberty-card/. Accessed 10 Dec. 2016.
    “Senator Mitch McConnell.” ConservativeReview.com, 10 Dec. 2016, www.conservativereview.com/members/mitch-mcconnell/liberty-card/. Accessed 10 Dec. 2016.
  2. Barnett, Randy E. Our Republican Constitution: Securing the Liberty and Sovereignty of We the People. HarperCollins, 2016.

Constitution design is a structure to limit the national government

James Madison stops Barack Obama from relighting the Constitution, illustrating the Constitution design in Article I that All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in congress.

Constitution design controls the people in the national government

…the Declaration of Independence tells us, it is “to secure these rights” that “Governments are instituted among Men.”

The… Constitution, then, provides the law that governs those who govern us

Those servants or agents who swear the oath to “this Constitution”—the written one—can no more change the “law that governs them” than we can change the speed limits that are imposed on us.[2, pp. 23-24.]

Constitution design uses structure to limit the national government

Federalism at the founding can… best be described as “Enumerated Powers Federalism.” …expressed in the first words of Article I, which created Congress: “All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States.” …reinforced by the words of the Tenth Amendment: “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.”[2, p. 190.]

…the more important the issue, the more likely it will engender a political war of all against all to avoid having another’s social policy imposed on you. So, the more important the issue, the less it is fit to be decided at the national level.[2, pp. 183-184.]

In Constitution design, structure is primary protection for individual rights

The U.S. Constitution is primarily a structure that was intended to protect the individual sovereignty of the people.

Only secondarily, and incompletely, does it expressly protect any particular rights retained by the people. In this sense, the few rights that are enumerated in the text of the Constitution are like the lifeboats on a ship. The fact that today our legal system pays so much attention to the few rights that are contained in the Constitution—such as the freedoms of speech, press, assembly, and the free exercise of religion—is a bad sign. It is a sign that the structural protections of the Constitution have been breached, and we are now all in the lifeboats.[2, pp. 167-168.]

“We have too long abrogated our duty to enforce the separation of powers required by our Constitution. We have overseen and sanctioned the growth of an administrative system that concentrates the power to make laws and the power to enforce them in the hands of a vast and unaccountable administrative apparatus that finds no comfortable home in our constitutional structure. The end result may be trains that run on time (although I doubt it), but the cost is to our Constitution and the individual liberty it protects.”

Instead, Justice Thomas urged us to “return to the original meaning of the Constitution: The Government may create generally applicable rules of private conduct only through the proper exercise of legislative power.”[2, pp. 213-214.]

  1. Romano, Robert. “Momentum Builds for Article 1 Supplemental.” conservativereview.com, 7 Feb. 2016, www.conservativereview.com/commentary/2016/02/momentum-builds-for-article-1-supplemental. Accessed 10 Dec. 2016.
  2. Barnett, Randy E. Our Republican Constitution: Securing the Liberty and Sovereignty of We the People. HarperCollins, 2016.

Property rights start with an individual having secure title to his own labor

Merchant and scribe in painting show property rights developing first for elites.
[1, Cover]

Property rights were secured by elites, then by individuals

All of human history has had but three social orders.

The first was the foraging order: small social groups characteristic of hunter–gatherer societies.

The limited access order or natural state emerged in the first social revolution. Personal relationships, who one is and who one knows, form the basis for social organization…, particularly personal relationships among powerful individuals.[2, p. 2] The natural state reduces the problem of endemic violence through the formation of a dominant coalition whose members possess special privileges. Elites – members of the dominant coalition – agree to respect each other’s privileges, including property rights…[2, p. 18]

In the open access orders that emerged in the second social revolution, …impersonal categories of individuals, often called citizens, interact over wide areas…[2, p. 2] Open access orders control violence through a different logic than the natural state. These societies create powerful, consolidated military and police organizations subservient to the political system.[2, p. 21] …these countries developed new economic and political institutions that… secured open access to legal enforcement of rights…[2, p. 27]

Property rights are ownership of yourself and your labor

…every man has a property in his own person: this no body has any right to but himself. The labour of his body, and the work of his hands, we may say, are properly his.[3]

…each individual, as a natural fact, is the owner of himself, the ruler of his own person. The “human” rights of the person that are defended in the purely free-market society are, in effect, each man’s property right in his own being, and from this property right stems his right to the material goods that he has produced.[1, p. 291]

…not only are property rights also human rights, but in the most profound sense there are no rights but property rights… Seizing the results of someone’s labor is equivalent to seizing hours from him and directing him to carry on various activities. If people force you to do certain work, or unrewarded work, for a certain period of time, they decide what you are to do and what purposes your work is to serve apart from your decisions. This process whereby they take this decision from you makes them a part-owner of you; it gives them a property right in you. Just as having such partial control and power of decision, by right, over an animal or inanimate object would be to have a property right in it.[4]

  1. Rothbard, Murray Newton. Power and market: government and the economy. 4th ed., Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2006, Cover and p. 291.
  2. North, Douglass C., John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast. Violence and social orders: a conceptual framework for interpreting recorded human history. Cambridge University Press, 2009, pp. 2, 18, 21, 27.
  3. Locke, John. The Second Treatise of Civil Government. 3rd ed. with corrections and improvements, 1764. Chapter 5, Section 27.
  4. Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, state, and utopia. Basic books, 1974. p. 172.